Sunday, September 22, 2019
Black man and white women Essay The story Black Man and White Women in Dark Green RowboatÃ¢â¬ , written by Russell Banks, is about an interracial relationship on the brink of disaster. The story opens up on an extremely hot day in August at a trailer park that is right next to a lake with a variety of people who live there. I was not immediately aware that the black man and the white woman were the focus of the story, but those characters gradually emerged and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when things started to get interesting. It becomes very obvious that white women want to control everything in the relationship and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t view the black man as an equal partner. Before they meet at the beach, the white women walks up in her bikini holding her towel, fashion magazine, and tanning lotion with her blonde hair swinging side to side. I automatically start to view her as an egotistical person. When the white women encounters the black man at the beach, she helps him push the boat to the water, but instead of helping him push the boat all the way from shore, she hops in it before her feet had even got wet. He was left to not only push the boat himself, rolling his pant legs up, but also pushing her in it as well. While he is rowing the boat he realizes he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t bring a hat and he is sweating. He wraps his shirt around his head and she explains to him that he looks like a sheik and a galley slave. To me this shows how she thinks of him as her own romanticized slave that she can control. She even reassures him that she was not kidding by saying Ã¢â¬Å"no really. HonestlyÃ¢â¬ . (68). The man continues to row and she says sheÃ¢â¬â¢s starting to put on weight and then she tells the man that she told her mother about them and their situation, but she never looked at him when she was talking to him. Her eyes were closed and directed toward the sun. She isnÃ¢â¬â¢t treating him like she cares; she is just caring on with her sun bathing. Then she tells him that she is going to have an abortion that afternoon. She does this without even asking the man if thats what he wants to do. Even after he expresses hatred towards the situation and basically tells her he wants her to keep the baby she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t listen. She just insists that everything will return to normal when itÃ¢â¬â¢s done. He asks her what happened and she brushes the question off and explains her mother is ok with him. You can tell he cares about her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion of him as he wants the reassurance that her mother actually likes him. The woman explains her mother just thinks she is fragile from depression. Honestly I feel like the women had had other abortions and just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be honest with the man. After some time had passed, the woman asks him how long he was going to fish. He tells her about an hour and offers to row her to a swimming spot if she would rather swim. She turns down the offer and makes appoint to mention the fact that she has to be back in time to make it to her abortion later that afternoon; again making it known she is making this decision on her own. The women starts looking through her magazine while the man continued for a few more casts then he finally gave up and said, No sense fishing when the fish aint feeding. The whole point is catching fish, right? (71). This is the mans turning point. I think he realized that the relationship he was in was kind of like fishing, there was no point in him being with her if she didnt want to move on to the next level. Before rowing back into shore, he said he wished he could just leave here there. She gets very nervous when he said that and tells him they have to go back. Thats when the man decided that it was time to move on with his life and he said, You mean, you have to go back. Ã¢â¬ (71). He rows back and all the people are carrying on like they were before except now things are changing for them. The White woman goes with her towel and magazine to have her abortion and back to living with her mother, while the Black man goes on his own separate way while watching the women leave. Charters, Ann. The Story and Its Writer An Introduction to Short Fiction. 8thth ed. Boston New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2011. 67-72. Print.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
English Present: Simple And The Present Progressive Introduction: As a teacher of English to Arabic speaking students I have encountered a number of specific difficulties Arab students have in mastering the English language. In this paper, I would like to focus on a particular grammatical problem they have in the area of verb tenses because, of all the mistakes that my students make, mistakes with verbs and verb tenses impede communication to the greatest degree. The specific problem I will attempt to look at the area of verbs is the problem that Arabic speakers have in using and confusing the present progressive. I will base the evidence for these mistakes on actual writing errors that Arabic students have made. Mistakes such as I am live in Abu Dhabi. come up frequently in my students writing. This paper is basically a contrastive analysis since I feel that the majority of my students problems in this area come from mother tongue interference. However, as will be noted below, this does not mean I rule out other sources of errors such as intralingual errors. The following is the outline of this paper: In the first section of this paper, I will describe the various aspects of the grammatical structure of the present simple and the present progressive in the English language. In the second section of the paper, I will contrast the grammatical structure of the present simple and the present progressive with its Arabic counterparts. I will show how Arabic has structures that vary significantly and radically from their English counterparts. In the third section, I will introduce a number of examples takes from students written work and give an indepth analysis of the possible sources of the errors, mainly with respect to mother tongue interference, but also looking at some possible intralingual sources for these errors as well. Finally, in the last section, I will attempt to suggest a general theoretical approach to dealing with such problems Part One: A grammatical description of the English Present Simple and the Present Progressive: The simple present tense As we already know, the simple present of every verb (with the exception of the verb BE, which I will not be dealing with as a grammatical description since it is not the specific focus of this paper) is identical in every person with the basic unmarked base form of the verb except for the third person forms he, she and it to which we generally add s or es (Quirk 1985, p.98). However, numerous irregularities arise in the spelling and pronunciation of this third person form (Leicester 1998, 12.12)(Thomson 1986, p. 150). Questions are formed by using the auxiliaries do, does, in the present, and did in the past by putting all these before the subject. Negation is formed in the same way using dont (or do not) and doesnt, (or does not) in the present, and didnt (or did not) in the past. These forms go after the subject. In addition, the verb must be changed to the basic form. The simple present is used for statements that are always true, (e.g. The earth revolves around the sun.) (Azar 1989,p.2). The simple present is also used for events, actions or situations which are true in the present period of time and which, for all we know, may continue indefinitely, (e.g. Fatima goes to school at Zayed University.) (Azar 1989, p.2) What we are saying in these expressions is that this is how things stand at the present moment (Huddleston 1984, p.81). A further use of the simple present is for actions that are habitual, things that happen repeatedly, (e.g. We study a lot.) (Alexander 1988, p.163)(Quirke 1985, p.107). Observations and declarations are another use of the present simple, as in the sentence (It says here that there is a new night club opening.)(Alexander 19988, p.163). The present simple can also be used to express the future, especially when we want to express strong certainty, (e.g. When we graduate, we will get jobs.). Swan, Huddleston, Lewis, Thomson and Quirke, et. al. also add eight other functions of the present simple which might come up in other contexts such as: Demonstrations and commentaries (e.g. First, I take a bowl and break two eggs in it, thenÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦..) The structures here comes and there goes, (e.g. here comes your husband.) Promises and oaths (e.g. I promiseÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦., I swear Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, He deniesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦..) Formal correspondence (e.g. We write to advise you.) Instructions (e.g. You go left, turn rightÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.) Stories (e.g. In act one, Hamlet meets the ghost of his father.), which Huddleston calls the historic present. In expressions of understanding such as hear, see, gather (e.g. I hear youre getting married.) Finally, the simple present can be used in newspaper headlines (e.g. RUSSIANS RAISE OBJECTIONS) Since there are so many instances of when to use the present simple, is there any way to summarize all of these? I concur with Lewis explanation that the present simple: 1-Expresses an event as a total single point in time. 2-Expresses an event as a matter of fact. 3-Expresses an event as immediate rather than remote. The present progressive tense Both the simple and progressive forms usually tell us that an action takes place. But the progressive forms also tell us that an activity is or was, or will be, etc. in progress, or thought of as being in progress. In other words, the present progressive tells us that the speaker sees an action as taking place over a period of time as opposed to a point in time. In addition researchers would add that the speaker sees the period as limited (Lewis 1986; Leech, 1975; Huddleston, 1984; Quirke, 1985). The present progressive tense is formed with the present of be (am/is/are) (which adds aspect and voice), said by Quirke to be the finite verb, plus the ing form (the non-finite form) (Quirke 1985, p. 120). There are no complications with the additional ing form; however the spelling of the ing has some irregularities and needs to be taught to students e.g. write, writing; run, running; begin, beginning; lie, lying). (Alexander 1988; Huddleston 1984; Quirke 1985). Question formation takes place by switching the place of the auxiliary be and the subject. Negation is achieved by inserting not between the subject and the auxiliary or by contracting nt with the auxiliary verb forms (with the exception of the first person singular form am) (Quirke, 1985). In the classroom, the classical reason given for why we use the present progressive is that it shows an uncompleted action in progress at the time of speaking. To emphasise this, we often use adverbials like now, at the moment, just, etc. For example, Hes not home at the moment, hes working. (Quirke 1985). The present progressive can also be used to describe actions which have not been happening for long, or are thought of as being temporary situations, and which are going on around now, e.g. Abdullah is living with his aunt until he can find a place of his own.. A further use of the present progressive is to refer to activities and events planned for the future. We generally use adverbials in such sentences unless the meaning is clear from context, e.g. Were spending next Thursday in Abu Dhabi. (Azar 1989; Huddleston 1984; Quirke 1985). The present progressive can also be used to talk about developing and changing situations, e.g. That child is getting bigger all the time. (Swan 1980). Sometimes the present progressive can be used to talk about feelings, such as I am feeling fine. or My back is hurting me.. The present progressive is used to show repeated actions along with adverbs such as always, constantly, continually, forever, perpetually, and repeatedly, such as He is always helping people.. In this sense it conveys not temporariness, but continuousness. (Leech 1975; Huddleston 1984). The present progressive also is used to show repeated actions that are happening around now, e.g. He is studying a lot of English these days. Why is he going to the library? (Swan 1980). Dynamic versus Stative Verbs in the present simple and the progressive tenses Dynamic/progressive verbs refer to verbs which show actions which are deliberate or voluntary, e.g. Im building a house., or changing situations, e.g. Hes becoming fat.. Dynamic verbs can be used in both the progressive as well as the simple forms e.g. I eat at 5:00 (everyday). as opposed to Im eating now.. Stative verbs (also known as non-progressive verbs) are verbs which indicate a state, condition or experience. Specifically, stative verbs fall into categories such as feelings (like, love), thinking/believing (think, know, realize), wants and preferences (need, want), perception and the senses (smell, see), and being, seeming, having, and owning (seem, look, appear). Stative verbs are generally not used in the progressive forms (Quirke 1985). However some stative verbs can be used in both the present simple and the progressive tenses, which results in a different meaning in each form, e.g. Im thinking of a solution. as opposed to I think he is the best man for the job. or These flowers smell good. as opposed to Latifa is smelling the flowers in the garden.) (Alexander 1988; Azar 1989; Azar 1986; Quirke 1985). The present simple versus the present progressive Swan makes note of a number of areas where students might confuse the present simple with the present continuous. A. We use the simple present to talk about things that are true for the present period of time, or, as was noted above, to say this is how things stand at the present moment for the foreseeable future. However, if the event is temporary and is taking place right now, we use the present progressive. Afrah studies at the Higher Colleges. Afrah is studying her English lesson. B. We use the present progressive to talk about habitual actions if these are happening around the moment of speaking. Fayrouz and Fatima are preparing for the Eid holidays. However, if the habitual action is not closely connected to the moment of speaking, we generally use the present simple. I go to Saudi Arabia once every three years. C. Verbs that refer to physical feelings can sometimes be used in either the simple present or the present progressive. I feel great! or Im feeling great! My head hurts. or My head is hurting. (Swan 1980). PART TWO A grammatical description of the Arabic present simple and the present progressive In this part of the paper, I would like to give readers a very brief background of the Arabic verb system in regard to the simple present and the present progressive. The Arabic verb system is very complicated. However, this does not mean that a teacher has to master the Arabic language before s/he is able to pinpoint errors that may be a result of the interference of Arabic in English. One can study the Arabic language with the goal of simply understanding the structure, rather than with the goal of speaking and writing in the language. Let us first look at the present simple, then the present progressive, and finally the verb to be since all of these grammatical items are specifically relevant to the particular problem at hand. A.The Present Simple In Arabic, the formation of the present simple is radically different from English, since Arabic uses a root system made up of the three most important consonants (though two or four consonant roots do sometimes occur). In Arabic the three basic consonants (the root) stay the same but it is by changes in the vowels, the suffixes and the prefixes that tense and number are indicated. It is vastly more complicated than the way some English verbs change tense by changing vowels, e.g. give, gave. For example, the sentence, he learns could be represented phonetically by ya-droo-soo. The d-r-s is the root, ya is the part that indicates this is a third person singular masculine verb (though this is not the pronoun). The pattern of the vowels and consonants (ya + c1 + c2+ oo + c3 + oo), lets the speaker know that this is the present tense. In contrast, the past could be represented by a different pattern; hence, he learned, dar-ah-sah has the pattern (c1 + ai or ah + c2 + ai or ah + c3 + ah) (and this is just one pattern out of ten!) From a sentence point of view the verb in Arabic is not necessarily treated as the nucleus of a sentence and, in the case of the copula verb BE, can be omitted entirely (as we shall see below). The verb can also be placed at the beginning of the sentence. Like its English counterpart, the present simple tense in Arabic expresses a habitual action. There are other functions, but they are not relevant to this discussion. B.The Present Progressive In general, the present simple form is also used in Arabic to express the idea of a continuous action occurring in the present. Hence, the English sentence He is working now. in Arabic becomes He works now. (represented phonetically by huwwah yaamaloo al eyn.) What is he doing? in Arabic becomes What does he do? (represented phonetically by mehzah yafaaloo al eyn?) Hence, in almost all cases, the present simple form is used to show the idea of continuous action in the present. However, there is a single verb form in Arabic called the ism-ul-fail which is the exact parallel to the idea of continuous action. However, the difference in Arabic is that the ism-ul-fail is used very sparingly compared to English and then only for some very specific verbs of movement, or verbs that indicate changing from one state to another (going up, going in, going down, walking to a place, leaving a place, etc.). Since the ism-ul-fail is radically different in form from the English progressive it is doubtful that any interference in form occurs. C.A Few Points About The Verb BE as a Copula Although BE as a copula is not the focus of this paper, it does deserve mention here for two specific reasons. The first point is that BE in Arabic, when it is the copula in the present tense, is unwritten and unspoken (although this is not true of the copula in the past tense or the future where it is written and spoken). (Kharma, 1989, p. 89). For example, the literal translation of the sentence Ahmed is a student. is Ahmed student.. So it is conceivable that students might leave BE out as a copula OR as the helping verb in the present progressive because it does not exist in the present tense in Arabic (although there are other additional reasons why students might forget to add it to the present progressive as we shall see). The second point is that BE is used so often in English, in so many different kinds of structures, and that it is so irregular, that it might simply add to the confusion of students (Kharma 1989, p. 161). Students who keep on being corrected for leaving out the verb to be when it is necessary, may for example, hypercorrect themselves and start to write it everywhere. Again, we shall explore this issue further below. PART THREE A look at some common written errors made by Arabic speaking students when using the English present simple and present progressive Finding the exact causes of any error can be a difficult and meticulous task. This is partly because there may be multiple reasons as to why students make one particular error and these causes may also overlap at any given time. In addition, it is extremely problematic, even for a native speaker of both Arabic and English, (which I am) to know exactly what is going on linguistically in the mind of a student when s/he makes such an error. However, having said that, even with these obstacles, we can at least make some good hypotheses and lists of possibilities as to why these errors occur with our own students. As a result, we will be able to generate classroom strategies and methods in order to correct and remedy these sorts of mistakes. The following categories of errors are the most common that I have found in students written work with regards to the simple present versus the present progressive. I will look at each category in turn, and offer an analysis of the sources for these types of error. Category One Fatima studies now. Ahmed does his homework now. In these sentences, the intention of the Arabic speaking writer seems to be to convey the meaning of what in English would be a present continuous action, expressed by the present continuous tense. This is clear by the use of the adverb now or in the case of other examples not shown here, from other adverbs or the context of the sentence. In examples one and two, the Arabic speaker seems to be transferring the rules of his native language into English. The Arabic speaker usually uses only the present simple to express events that would be expressed in English by both the present simple and the present continuous. Category Two Mariam cant talk, she eating now. This kind of mistake is a bit more problematic in terms of analysis. It could be that the Arabic speaker, feeling that the full meaning of the action is expressed in the verb with the ing, has decided that the am/are/is forms are redundant and unnecessary. It could also be the case that this mistake is a direct transfer of a particular grammatical form in Arabic. In certain cases Arabic speakers do express the present continuous with a verb and prefix change (called ism-ul-fail), but without the corresponding be form. For example, the literal translation of the sentence Ahmed is running. is Ahmed running. . Category Three Are you knowing the way to Dubai? I am wanting to see my family. In this case, the student has learned the present progressive form, but is over generalizing it to all verbs (or perhaps does not remember or has not been taught the rules for exceptions such as the above). These types of errors could very well be intralingual. This over generalization could also be found in sentences that have the function of explaining, demonstrating teaching or narrating such as: Next I am pouring the oil into the cooking pan. Ali is passing the ball to the goalkeeper. Category Four I am live in Abu Dhabi. We are study English. This category is probably the most difficult to analyze. This is because it is unclear whether the Arabic speaker is making the mistake of adding the additional am/is/are form while trying to use the present tense, or making the mistake of forgetting to use the present participle while trying to use the present progressive tense. That is, did the speaker intend to say I live in Abu Dhabi. and use the extra am form by mistake, or did s/he intend to say I am living in Abu Dhabi. and forget the correct present participle form? Of course, there are other possibilities but these seem like the two most likely. We must obviously look at the context of the paragraph to see if we can get the gist of what the speaker meant. The following is a more detailed analysis of these two possibilities from the standpoint of the students reasoning. 1. If we believe from the context that the student was trying to use the present simple and added the additional am in error, then the following analyses apply: A. The student may be confused by the lack of inflectional endings in English, since Arabic is a highly inflected language, and every personal pronoun has a distinct corresponding inflected verb form. The similarity of the verb forms in I live, you live, etc. may seem very awkward to the Arabic speaker. Hence, they may want to remedy the situation by distinguishing the verb forms in some way by, for example, adding an exceedingly familiar and overused verb form like am, are, or is. B. The student may be over generalising based on what they have learned about the present continuous. That is, they may have learned how to form the present continuous quite easily since there is no mother tongue interference from Arabic, (although they may not have mastered its use). They then may go on to conclude that every verb in the present simple or present continuous in English needs to be preceded by am/is/are. C. Similarly, the student may be hypercorrecting. They may have been corrected so many times for forgetting to use the verb BE in their sentences e.g. Ahmed happy, that they may start to feel that every sentence needs the verb BE. 2. However, if we believe that the student was trying to use the present continuous tense and used the present simple live (instead of the present participle living), then the following analyses apply: A. The student may not have correctly understood how to form the present participle by adding ing to the end of the verb. B. Perhaps students have simply forgotten to add the ing prefix because the structure is so different in their language. This is by no means an exhaustive analysis. However, these are, from my experience and collaboration with other colleagues, both native and non-native speakers, some of the major possibilities. PART FOUR Pedogogical implications of the above research for teaching the present simple and the present progressive to Arabic speaking students From the evidence I have presented here, I believe it is clear that many of the mistakes in using the present simple and the present progressive in form (such as omission of the verb to be in the simple present for Arabic speakers, e.g. I studying), as well as other mistakes in usage (e.g. using the simple present when the present progressive is required) seem to be traceable directly to Arabic mother tongue interference. Based on my analyses, reading and discussion with colleagues, I do feel that in this particular area, teachers of EFL to Arabic speakers must consider mother tongue interference as a major impediment to learning the present tense versus the present progressive. If we know that mother tongue interference is the cause of many errors, what should this imply for our teaching? One thing which I think it does not imply is that we teach English from the point of view of the mother tongue. For example, trying to get students to understand English grammar through word for word translations or using the grammatical structure of Arabic to help students to understand the grammatical structure of English are only useful in certain cases, and then only by someone who is a master of both languages. My experience in reading the research, being bilingual and talking to Arabic speaking students who are at the final stages of their English studies leads me to believe that, at least in the case of Arabic and English, that the two languages are sufficiently different that they are both best looked at in their own respective grammars. Students must be made, not only to think in English, but to understand English grammar in terms of English grammar without constantly switching back and forth to compare it with Arabic. Such practices are ineffective and will cause confusion among students. As Lewis says students should never expect the foreign language to be like their ownÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦..the fact that English has verb forms that contain [be] as an auxiliary does not suggest that other languages ought to have a corresponding formÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.students should be positively encouraged to explore the foreign language within itself rather than through the expectations they bring from their own. (Lewis, 1986, pp. 164-165). In addition, I should add that intralingual factors can also be at work when students make such errors (in addition to context specific factors like student motivation, teaching style and competence, etc.). For example, on the intralingual side, we know that students of ESL from many different language groups and even children make common mistakes with the verb to be. Therefore, many such mistakes might be intralingual. (Mattar 1989). Hence, when we try to analyse our students errors we should not be prejudiced to any one theory and we should try to be open to looking at all possible sources of errors. What we as teachers should be doing in the classroom is continually collecting research on student errors and student learning styles in order to form hypotheses about why such errors occur and why such one approach worked and another didnt. We should then be trying to test these hypotheses to see if they are true or not, and afterwards share this information w ith other teachers in similar situations. Only then will we be able to understand why students make errors and what is the most effective way to correct them. Cell Membrane: Structure And Function Cell Membrane: Structure And Function A cell is a dynamic and a complex structure surrounded by a membrane known as the plasma membrane. This acts like a barrier between the inside of the cell and the outside resulting in different chemical environments on the two sides. The cell membrane is not restricted to the outer surface but is also present inside surrounding the organelles. These biological membranes have played a crucial role in the evolution from prokaryotes to multicellular eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, there is only one type of membrane present i.e. the plasma membrane but the unicellular eukaryotes have intracellular membranes compartmentalizing its contents into different functional chambers known as organelles. Each organelle though performs its own specific function, they cross-talk with each other via these membranes in order to work as a unit. Further, different cells in multicellular eukaryotes communicate with each other through these membranes. The membrane, therefore serves a dual purpose of both protecting the interior of the cell from its external environment and also provides a communication interface between the cell and its surroundings or other cells. The diverse functions performed by biological membranes can be attributed to the molecular composition and structure of these membranes. Models for Cell Membrane Structure It took almost a century to develop the present accepted model of a cell membrane based on various physiological and biophysical studies. Physiological experiments involving the transport of molecules and ions across the membrane by Overton in 1899 suggested that the membrane is composed of lipid molecules. Later, Langmuir (1917) showed that lipids when spread on water using Langmuir trough form a monomolecular layer on the surface of the water by calculating the area per lipid molecule. The hydrophobic tails of these lipids were bent and protruding out from the surface of the water. When this method for measuring the area per lipid molecule was applied to the lipids extracted from the known amount of erythrocyte membranes, Gorter and Grendel (1925) concluded that the lipids exist as a bilayer and not a monolayer in a membrane giving birth to the lipid- bilayer membrane model. In 1935, Danielli and Davson elaborated on the model based on the studies measuring the surface tension that membranes are made up of phospholipid bilayer sandwiched between two protein layers. Based on optical imaging of membrane morphology using electron microscopy, Robertson argued that the basic structure of all the membranes is same and proposed the Unit Membrane Model in 1959 . Several other studies [review or book] suggested that the lipid bilayer has fluid-like properties with lipids and proteins floating in it. Studies of proteins present in erythrocytes membrane and that extracted from other membranes led Singer and Nicolson to classify membrane proteins as peripheral and integral proteins; and finally proposing the Fluid Mosaic Model in 1972 . This is the most accepted model describing the structure of a cell membrane. According to this model, mosaic of protein molecules is embedded within the fluid of lipid bilayer which is supported by the freeze-fracture studies of the plasma membrane (Figure). Composition of Membranes Membrane Lipids The lipid bilayer is only 5 to 10nm thick organized in distinct regions primarily attributed to the hydrophobic effect caused due to the amphipathic nature of these molecules with both polar and the non-polar regions (Figure). The interactions of these regions with the aqueous environment have been studied with various techniques like x-ray reflectometry, neutron scattering[2HYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid_bilayer#cite_note-Zaccai1975-1] and nuclear magnetic resonance. In order to exclude the non-polar regions from the aqueous environment, lipid molecules arrange in such a manner so that the hydrophobic tails point inwardly towards each other and the polar head groups are exposed on the outside facing the water. The outermost region on either side of the bilayer is completely hydrated and is typically around 8-9Ãâ¦ thick. The hydrophobic core of the bilayer is typically 3-4ÃâÃ nm thick. The intermediate region is partially hydrated and is approximately 3 Ãâ¦ thick. These lipid molecules arrange spontaneously naturally or artificially in solution to form structures like micelles and liposomes (Figure). Micelles are monolayer spherical structures formed by lipid molecules in aqueous environment. On the other hand, liposomes are concentric bilayer of fluid-filled vesicles surrounding the water compartment on both the surfaces. The membrane of the animal cells is composed primarily of three major types of lipids: phospholipids, glycolipids and cholesterol with phospholipids being the most abundant (Figure). The polar head groups of these phospholipids contain a phosphate group and either a glycerol (known as phosphoglycerides) or sphingosine. There are four major phospholipids present in the animal cells, three are phosphoglycerides namely phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine; and the fourth sphingomyelin is the only sphingolipid. The heads of glycolipids contain a sphingosine with one (known as cerebroside) or more sugars (known as ganglioside) attached to it. Cholesterol is a sterol molecule with a small hydrophilic hydroxyl group and a rigid ring structure that stabilizes the bilayer. Membrane Proteins The membrane consists of different types of proteins accounting for 25-75% of the mass of the membrane and are categorized based on their interactions with the lipid bilayer (Figure). Moreover, the manner in which a protein is associated with the membrane is indicative of its function. Integral or intrinsic proteins are embedded with in the lipid bilayer. These could be transmembrane proteins spanning the entire length of the bilayer and possess hydrophobic domains which are anchored to hydrophobic lipids and hydrophilic domain interacting with external molecules. They could have only one membrane-spanning (single pass transmembrane proteins, e.g. glycophorin) or multispanning (multi-pass transmembrane proteins, e.g. band3 protein of erythrocyte) segments. The transmembrane segments have helical e.g. bacteriorhodopsin or ÃÅ½Ã ²- barrel structures. These proteins can be extracted from the phospholipid bilayer only by disrupting the hydrophobic interactions by using detergents like S DS or Triton-X 100. Peripheral or the extrinsic proteins, on the other hand, are loosely bound to the hydrophilic lipid and protein groups on the surface of the membrane by weak ionic interactions. These can be easily removed with high salt or extreme pH without disrupting the phospholipid bilayer. Lipid-anchored proteins are covalently bound to lipid molecule which in turn anchors the protein in the cell membrane. The lipid can be phosphatidylinositol, a fatty acid or a prenyl group. Membrane Carbohydrates Carbohydrate moieties are present on the non-cytoplasmic surface of the membrane covalently attached to either protein or lipid molecules forming glycoproteins or glycolipids. These carbohydrates help in orientation of protein molecules on the cell surface and sorting in cellular compartments. The glycocalyx or the cell coat is the layer of carbohydrates on the cell surface that protects it and participates in the cell-cell interaction. The carbohydrates of the glycolipids of the erythrocytes membrane determine the ABO blood groups in human. Fluidity of Membranes Under physiological conditions, phospholipid molecules in the membrane are in the liquid crystalline state and the molecules are not physically attached to each other so, they can move within the bilayer. These movements could be within a monolayer i.e. rotational and lateral or between two layers i.e. flip-flop. Flip-flop movements are rare and slower compared to the other two as it requires energy for a lipid molecule to traverse from one layer to the other. Besides, some proteins also move in the membrane as concluded from studies based on human-mouse cell hybrids produced by fusion of human and mouse cells [Frye and Michael Edidin in 1970] and FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) experiments (Figure). Fluidity in the cell membrane is attributed to its lipid composition. The cis-unsaturated fatty acids with kinks in their hydrocarbon tails and shorter lengths of the tails increase the fluidity by preventing the ordered packing of phospholipids in the bilayer. Cholesterol molecules present in the bilayer affects its fluidity differently at different temperatures because of its rigid ring structure. It reduces the fluidity by decreasing the movement of adjacent phospholipids but at low temperatures, it increases the fluidity by preventing solidification [Alberts]. Fluidity of the membrane allows different molecules like proteins to interact with each other to perform various processes like transport of molecules and cell signalling. Moreover, membrane fluidity is required for various cellular processes like cell movement and cell division. Asymmetry of Membranes The two leaflets, that is, the inner and the outer monolayer portions of the lipid bilayer differ in their physical and chemical properties. This is due to the asymmetric organization of the various components of the membrane. For example, glycolipids and glycoproteins are always present on the non-cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. Membrane regions differ in their lipid composition. The outer leaflet contains predominantly phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin whereas, the inner leaflet contains phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine. The inner leaflet also consists of phosphatidylinositol which play a key role in the transfer of stimuli from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm [Cooper]. The membrane proteins also differ in their distribution in the two leaflets. For example, spectrin and ankyrin are present on the inner surface of the erythrocytes membrane forming a fibrillar membrane skeleton. GPI-anchored proteins ar present on the external surface of the membr ane. The asymmetry of the membrane suggested different roles played by the components of the membrane present on the two surfaces (Figure eg intestinal epithelial cell membrane:Tight junction , lateral movements). Lipid Rafts The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells have specialized regions known as lipid rafts which differ in their composition from the rest of the membrane. These detergent-resistant and heterogeneous microdomains are rich in cholesterol, sphingolipids and certain proteins. Lipids in these rafts are more highly ordered and tightly packed as compared to the rest of the lipid bilayer. Various studies have attributed diverse roles like in transport of cholesterol, endocytosis, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking and neural development and function to these lipid rafts. Caveolae is an example of lipid rafts which are the invaginated domains in the plasma membrane. In caveolae, a protein caveolin is associated with the cholesterol in the lipid raft. It plays roles in membrane internalization and cell signaling. [Pike et al, 2002; Wary et al, 1998; Huang et al, 1999; Rothberg et al, 1992] (Review: Razani Lisanti, 2001. Exp. Cell Research 271: 36-44). Might not in endocytosis [Thompsen et al, 2002] see lipid rafts 4 references Functions of membranes: Membranes act as boundaries between the cell and its environment and are essential for maintaining the integrity of the cell and the various membrane-bound organelles within the cell, regulating the transport of materials into and out of the cell, responding to external and internal stimuli, and cell-to-cell recognition. The proteins present on the inner surface of the plasma membrane provides shape and maintains the integrity of the cell by anchoring the cytoskeleton found underlying the cell membrane in the cytoplasm. The major component of the cytoskeleton of the most well studied erythrocyte membrane is the fibrous protein spectrin. This protein interacts with other peripheral proteins like ankyrin, actin and tropomyosin. Dystophin, a member of the spectrin family is found in the membrane skeleton of muscle cells. The importance of these proteins is suggested by the fact that mutations in dystrophin leads to muscular dystrophy. Regulated transport of materials across the membrane is due to the amphipathic nature of the lipid bilayer. Therefore, the membranes are selectively permeable and the ability of a molecule or ion to traverse the bilayer depends majorly on its polarity and also on the size. Non-polar molecules like O2, N2 and benzene and small polar molecules like H2O, glycerol, urea and CO2 can pass the membrane but large uncharged (e.g. glucose), polar molecules (e.g. sucrose) and ions (e.g. H+, Na+, HCO3, ClÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Ë) are not able to diffuse easily across membranes. Hence, various mechanisms are required for transport of materials across the membrane, including simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport for micromolecules and exocytosis and endocytosis for macromolecules. In simple diffusion, substances diffuse down their concentration gradient. In facilitated diffusion, movement of molecules down the concentration gradient is facilitated by channel and carrier proteins (e.g. glucose transporter). On the other hand, active transport requires energy to move solutes against their gradients and can be classified into primary or secondary active transport depending on the source of energy. The primary active transport depends on the hydrolysis of ATP and is of different types: P (e.g. Na+ K+ ATPase, Figure), F and V types and the ATP-binding cassette or ABC transporters. In secondary active transport, specific solute indirectly drives the active transport of another solute and does not involve the hydrolysis of ATP. Secondary active transport may include either symport (e.g. Na+/Glucose transporter) or antiport (ClÃâÃ -/HCO3 exchanger). The macromolecules such as proteins and polysaccharides are transported by endocytosis (from inside the cell to th e outside) and exocytosis (from outside into the cell) (Figure). Cell membrane is also involved in cell-cell communication. Specialized membrane structures like gap junctions in animals and plasmodesmata in plants provide the cytoplasmic continuity between cells. Tight junctions and desmosomes help in attachment of a cell to other cells or the extracellular matrix forming tissues. Membrane also maintains cell potential by creating chemical and electrical gradient. Cell signaling: Signals through chemical messengers (chemical or electrical stimuli) acting on the membrane receptors most of them being proteins. These signals are then transduced in the cell leading to a cascade of events in the cell. Specific for different cells like Gprotein, Tyrosine-kinase receptors Peripheral proteins act as enzymes e.g. and receptors In summary, biological membranes are the complex and dynamic structures composed of variety of proteins embedded in the fluid of the lipid bilayer. The amphipathic nature of the lipid bilayer and the diversity of membrane proteins are responsible for the involvement of biological membranes in large number of cellular processes.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Introduction To Slavery In America History Essay Slavery in America developed its roots way back to when American explorers discovered the new world. As a result, the whites started to use the African folks as workers in their plantations and homes as slaves. The African natives that were taken back to America as slaves were of various ages and sex. The women would work in the homes as cooks and cleaners while the men spent their days in the plantation tending to the crops. The young girls helped with minor house works and the boys were tasked with the duties of bailing the hay and loading goods and crops on wagons. During the civil war, most of the Black men were recruited into the army to aid in the fight. After the fight, the thirteenth amendment was enacted on December 18th 1865 under the proclamation of the then secretary of state. It aimed at abolishing slavery and involuntary servitude of the Blacks. It was the first of the reconstruction acts enacted post the civil war. This amendment was soon after improved by the 14th ame ndment which gave the African Americans citizenship but little constitution rights. This was abridged by the 15th amendment which gave the African American males right to vote in the general elections during the reconstruction era The term reconstruction era refers to the period between 1865 and 1877 after the great American civil war. It is the time in the US history whereby the governments of the various states put in motion efforts in a bid to solve the social, economic and political problems that came about due to the establishment of the 11 confederate states union that had disintegrated before or during the war. It was during this period that the Pres. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated (April 1865) due to his lenient policies and proposed passing of the 14th amendment (1866) which aimed at granting the black Americans full citizenship. This move was called for by the fact that there were newly established states that required governance and the in economic, social and political recovery aspects required that all people work together irrespective of their differences in a bid to achieve growth and development. However, these propositions were met with high disregards from the public; majority of whom belie ved that the blacks were meant to be slaves and had no rights. Consequently there developed riots and black codes which were meant to restrict blacks from their rights especially in the south. The 14th amendment was passed during the reign of President Andrew Johnson. However, the southern states established the Black Codes which refers to the laws passed by these governments in order to limit the rights given to the freed African Americans. The 14th amendment gave the slaves a right to citizenship but the Black Codes prohibited them from voting, jury duty, possessing weapons, testifying against the whites and even working in certain positions secured for the white folksÃ Ã . As a result of this, the radical republicans supported the passing of the civil rights bill which was intended to protect the African Americans from these Black Codes. However in April 1866, Pres. Andrew Johnson banned this bill claiming that America was a land for the Whites and should be governed by the white folks. Additionally, he claimed that the whites are a superior race to the blacks in terms of abilities and intellect. These statements clearly showed the extent of racism and inequality that existed between the two races. The radical republicans were able to yet again pass the civil rights bill in 1867. This move led to the rise of organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) whose main aim was to frighten and terrorize the African Americans from exercising their rights (voting). The civil right bill did not suffice in protecting the African Americans from the Black Codes and other forms of racial injustices and inequalities. In a bid to justify these racial tendencies, governments in the US enacted the Jim Crow laws between 1876 and 1965. These were state and local laws in the US that supported racial segregation in public places such as public schools, transportation, restaurants and entertainment venues as well as restrooms for Whites and BlacksÃ Ã . These laws by default resulted in inferior treatment of the Blacks in terms of accommodations, resource allocation, quality of products and services and even prices. Consequently the Black community in the States experienced a number of economic and social disadvantages due to the enactment of these laws in comparison to the Whites. Despite all these hardships, the African Americans still increased in numbers and managed to survive under these conditions. To counter this, the segregation worsened to a p oint where the Blacks were not allowed in some premises owned by whites, localities (residential estates occupied by whites), or even churches. This means that the Blacks lived in different areas away from the White communities and had their own religious and economic systems different from that of the White folks. In addition to this, interracial relationships were prohibited and if realized; punishable by death (blacks). In 1896, the Supreme Court decided that the Louisiana law supporting racial segregation under the doctrine of separate but equal was constitutional. This ruling was brought about in the Plessy v. Ferguson case. According to the Jim Crow laws, transportation of the Blacks was also segregated and as such, they had their own railway cars different from the ones used by the whites. In this case, Plessy a 1/8th black American citizen, was arrested in 1892 for boarding a car designated for the whites. Under the Louisiana laws, he was considered as a black person and as such was arrested for civil disobedience. The case managed to get to the Supreme Court and after a while a vote of 7 to1 majority won the case. In 1879, Plessy pleaded guilty to the crime. This case sealed the foundation of the segregation laws and was used to further justify the segregation of color practiced thereafterÃ Ã . In fact, it clarified the fact that segregation was legal as long as the facilities provided to both races were of the same quality. The southern States however did not provide the Blacks with quality facilities or even equal resources. This case actually justified the separation of race and inequalities in the States up to 1954 when it was overturned by the ruling made by the Supreme Court as pertaining to the Brown v. Board of Education case. In addition to this, the congress passed the freedman act post civil war in March 1865. This act was established in order to punish the confederates who refused to surrender 60 days after the civil warÃ Ã . The act stipulated that the slaves of such people would be freed. The congress therefore established this bureau to help the refugees and slaves left destitute due to the civil war. The main aim of this bureau was to assist these people settle, acquire land and to protect them from their former masters. Additionally, this bureau helped in developing schools, hospitals and other social amenities for the slaves and the citizens who had participated in the war but were displaced or otherwise left penniless by the whole ordeal. However, the Jim Crow laws to a large extent prohibited the effectiveness of this act through the limitations pertaining to land ownership and segregations. These laws had adverse effects on the social lives of the blacks in the United States. They all seemed to fuel racism among the people. Collectively, these laws were designed to oppress the blacks and restrict their rights. As such, there were wide spread inequalities based on color (race). For example, the Jim Crow laws advocated for racial segregation under the cloak of separate but equal doctrine. However, there was no equality especially since the facilities offered to the whites were far more superior as compared to those afforded to the Blacks. Also the fact that the Blacks went to different schools, restaurants, restrooms and even used different transport systems clearly showed increased racism in the United States. In addition to this, they also facilitated the presence of second class status among the races. This situation was mostly brought about by the Black Codes. Despite the fact that the 14th amendment gave the Blacks freedom and a right to citizenship, the Black Codes restricted them to exercise certain rights awarded to citizens such as voting, working in some positions, carrying firearms or even testifying against the whites. Consequently, the Blacks were inferior to the whites and their opinions carried no weight towards the political and social development and growth of the US. The fact that the 14th and 15th amendments seemed to favor the Blacks and abolish slavery did not auger well with most states in the south. As a result, some faction groups and organizations were formed in order to terrorize and oppress the Blacks. One such group was the Ku Klux Klan which was established in 1866 in Tennessee with a set goal to ensure that the Blacks who had won the right to vote in the 1867 elections did not exercise this right. It was a racist group that claimed to undo what the civil war and the voting commissions had done to the US. In 1915, the organization diverted its wrath to the immigrants and Catholic Church who they claimed were anti US activists by supporting the Blacks. The rise of such factions brought about various human injustices like lynching of the Blacks, brutalities some leading to death and various forms of intimidation. For example, if a Black person went into the wrong restaurant owned by whites or was seen talking to a white person, this constituted to a thorough beating or even imprisonment. These acts of lawlessness were further fueled by the fact that even the law enforcement agencies were not fond of the Black communities. Many cases were reported where crosses were burnt in the Black communities by members of the KKK as an intimidation technique used to scare the Blacks from voting or interacting with the whites. In addition to this, the whites used signs and symbols to separate the places that these races were allowed to visit. Consequently, this led to regional segregation whereby markets and entertainment venues as well as residential areas for the blacks were isolated far from those of the whites. In some states, the use of sign s was supported by the laws to further dictate and enforce the segregation laws. After the civil war, most of the blacks demanded for repatriations for the slavery. However these pleas fell into deaf ears and as such, poverty loomed among the Black community. This situation was worsened by the establishment of the Black code laws which prohibited the Blacks from property ownership including land and housingÃ Ã . In addition to this, Blacks under these laws were not allowed to work in certain positions and were left with very few options such as working in the white farms and other odd jobs which attracted very low salaries and wages. On the same note, their businesses could not thrive due to the fact that the whites could not buy from the blacks or even supply them with the products to sell. All these factors led to an increase in poverty amongst the Black community. In addition to this, the Jim Crow laws prohibited the blacks from owning land. As a result, they had no choice but to rent out pieces of land from the whites a fact that led to the rise of sharecropping. This system seemed to thrive since most white farmers had large chunks of land and little money to pay laborers especially after the war. Consequently, they struck a bargain with the black laborers entailing that they attend to the land for a small fee, shelter and basic provisions a factor that seemed to cater for the immediate needs of both races under the prevailing circumstances. To further ensure that the Blacks were occupied at all times, the governments and local states put in place vagrancy laws. These were among the black code laws and dictated that all unemployed or wandering Blacks be arrested. These laws were specifically designed to arrest the Blacks since the penalty fees were too high and most of them could not foot the bill. As a result, they could be sent to county labor or be hired as workers for private people. As such, the laws ensured that there was enough labor to go around for the white farmers. As mentioned earlier, these laws seemed to advocate for racism and segregation against the blacks. As a result, they affected the cultural bearing of the African Americans in all aspects. For example, the racism and segregation led to the establishment of black churches. Since the Blacks were not allowed to attend white churches, they had to establish their own religious foundations. These protestant churches focused on developing hope for the blacks who experienced hardships and oppression for the whitesÃ Ã . Eventually, as the churches grew larger, they offered education to their members in a bid to improve their status and chances of bettering their lives. The music developed by the Blacks during this era was mainly of blues and jazz nature. These were somber songs sang to provide hope to the Blacks through the hardships that they faced. In addition to this, the rhythms were thought to have originated from the African continent and were perfected in the states. The Blacks were known to sing as they worked in the fields. These songs were later modified and improved over the years to form the now known Blues and jazz. As per the sports, the African Americans were still segregated and discriminated upon. However, there were some exceptions such as Moses Fleetwood who was known as the first Black player to play the baseball major leagues with the whites despite his race, or other athletes who showed exceptional talent in the sporting arenas. In addition to this, the Blacks also developed their own Negro league which they used to facilitate communication and interactions amongst themselves since visiting each other was risky under the vagrancy laws. The food common to the African Americans was called soul food. The term originated from the fact that the term soul referred to the Black culture for example soul music or soul train. The origin of the food traces its roots back to the African continent and was introduced to America through the transatlantic slave trade in the late 1870s. The cuisine included meals made of sorghum, rice, cassavas and turnips. As such, these meals became the dietary staples common to the enslaved Africans. During the Jim Crow era, education to the African Americans was viewed as a source of inspiration to fight for change against the oppression that prevailed for a very long time. In as much as the Blacks faced various challenges in accessing educational facilities, the church played a pivotal role in providing access to such amenities. The Blacks were realized to be high academic achievers due to their motivation and persistence in a bid to get a better life and to fight for a better future for the generations to come. Due to the oppressive state that the blacks were experiencing in the states, most of them opted to find ways to migrate back to their mother land. The whites on the other hand oppressed and harassed the Black folks with an aim of pushing them back to Africa. As such, the Blacks believed that the whites were superior to them and figured that there would be more chances and opportunities for them back in Africa. Consequently, this led to an increase in migration of the Blacks to other countries such as Liberia where they felt less intimidated by the whites and at the same time got a feeling of belonging after the hard and struggle full lifeÃ Ã . Conclusion Slavery and segregation tormented the lives of the Africans at the wake of the 19th century. In as much as the 14th and the 15th amendments made attempts to protect and reward the blacks for their efforts, many a white folks still felt superior to them. This led to the establishment of archaic laws and policies formulated to justify the racism and other forms of injustice targeting the Black folks. However, the African Americans surprised the whole world by persisting through it all until such a time that they would realize true freedom and equality among the various races.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Uses of nuclear radiation Smoke Detectors Smoke alarms contain a weak source made of Americium-241.Alpha particles are emitted from here, which ionise the air, so that the air conducts electricity and a small current flows. If smoke enters the alarm, this absorbs the particles, the current reduces, and the alarm sounds. Thickness Control In paper mills, the thickness of the paper can be controlled by measuring how much beta radiation passes through the paper to a Geiger counter. The counter controls the pressure of the rollers to give the correct thickness. With paper, or plastic, or aluminium foil, , rays are used, because , will not go through the paper. We choose a source with a long half-life so that it does not need to be replaced often. Sterilising Even after it has been packaged, gamma rays can be used to kill bacteria, mould and insects in food. This process prolongs the shelf-life of the food, but sometimes changes the taste. Gamma rays are also used to sterilise hospital equipment, especially plastic syringes that would be damaged if heated. Radioactive Dating Animals and plants have a known proportion of Carbon-14 (a radioisotope of Carbon) in their tissues. When they die they stop taking Carbon in, then the amount of Carbon-14 goes down at a known rate (Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5700 years). The age of the ancient organic materials can be found by measuring the amount of Carbon-14 that is left. Radioactive Tracers The most common tracer is called Technetium-99 and is very safe because it only emits gamma rays and doesn't cause much ionisation. Radioisotopes can be used for medical purposes, such as checking for a blocked kidney. To do this a small amount of Iodine-123 is injected into the patient, after 5 minutes 2 Geiger counters are placed over the kidneys. Also radioisotopes are used in industry, to detect leaking pipes. To do this, a small amount is injected into the pipe. It is then detected with a GM counter above ground. Cancer Treatment Because Gamma rays can kill living cells, they are used to kill cancer cells without having to resort to difficult surgery. This is called "Radiotherapy? and works because cancer cells can't repair themselves when damaged by gamma rays, as healthy cells can.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Immortal Life vs. Immortal Name: Gilgamesh and Beowulf Death. Fate. Immortality. Destiny. All are subjects that we tend to avoid. While most of us hope for life after death, we tend not to dwell on this subject because we are uncomfortable with the unknown. On those rare occasions when we allow ourselves to think about the fact that our days are numbered, we wonder if death can be cheated and immortality gained. Some have suggested that being remembered is just as enduring as living forever. Thoughts of destiny and the here after are not new. They have engaged the hearts and minds of men for ages. Two ancient stories that deal with this subject matter are The Epic of Gilgamesh and Beowulf. In these texts, the main characters, Gilgamesh and Beowulf, are obsessed with their fate. To the degree that these epics accurately reflect the society and culture of their own eras, one can see that men of these ancient times were as concerned about their ultimate destiny as we are. The epic stories of Gilgamesh and Beowulf illustrate that men and wom en throughout the ages have been keenly aware of their own mortality and that they long to live on eternally, if only in the memory of others. In the beginning of The Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh, the ruler of ancient Uruk, is blessed with the gift of foresight. He has numerous dreams about his destiny and is very accepting of the fate that the gods have given him. The gods give Gilgamesh a dream and Enkidu interprets GilgameshÃ¢â¬â¢s vision concerning his fate. Enkidu says that Enlil, father of the gods Ã¢â¬Å"has given you kingship, such is your destiny, everlasting life is not your destinyÃ¢â¬ (Sandars 70). With this revelation Gilgamesh knows his destiny very early in his journey. Rather than becoming angry at the gods, Gilgamesh accepts the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ choice to not give him eternal life. Instead, Gilgamesh wants to Ã¢â¬Å"set up his name in the place where the names of famous men are written, and where no manÃ¢â¬â¢s name is written yet he will raise a monument to the godsÃ¢â¬ (70-1). Gilgamesh succeeds in his plan for making himself famous by first defeating the guardian of the forest, Humbaba, and shortly after, the bull of heaven. During these battles Gilgamesh declares that there is Ã¢â¬Å"nothing to fear! Ã¢â¬ ¦ if I fall I leave behind me a name that enduresÃ¢â¬ (71). Having reconciled himself to the fact that fate has indeed determined when he will die, h... ...O, GilgameshÃ¢â¬ ¦great is thy praiseÃ¢â¬ (119). The narrator is saying that the admiration of others is and will be great. This clearly shows that the people of Uruk will keep Gilgamesh alive in their minds. Beowulf will at some level attain everlasting life through the memory of his people as well. In Beowulf and Gilgamesh, both heroes desire to gain everlasting life. At one point, Gilgamesh believes that he can actually gain eternal life and change his destiny. Beowulf, and eventually Gilgamesh, end up gaining everlasting life through their monuments and the good deeds that their people will remember them by. The ancient societies depicted in The Epic of Gilgamesh and Beowulf are no doubt representative of the actual societies that existed during those time periods. These ancient people were greatly concerned with issues such as death, fate, and destiny. People of ancient times and modern realize that even though one cannot escape death, one can to some degree achieve immortality, if only in the memories of those left behind. Works Cited Liuzza, Roy M., trans. Beowulf. Peterborough, ON: Broadview, 1999. Sandars, N. K., trans. The Epic of Gilgamesh. New York: Penguin, 1972.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
According to Alfred Kazin, Ã¢â¬Å"In every great novel of societyÃ¢â¬ ¦ what counts is the reality behind the appearanceÃ¢â¬ (Kazin, 1981, 297). In other words, heÃ¢â¬â¢s saying that the best books are those that include one or more realities behind appearances. The novel first I chose is called Perfect by Ellen Hopkins. This book has four main characters; Cara, Sean, Kendra, and Andre, who are all teens struggling to fit the ideal of perfection, even if it means hurting and lying to themselves and others. The other novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain tells a story of a runaway slave named Jim and a young boy Huck, running from the dangers of his father. Together they are trying to get to the North but run into many roadblocks. This adventure includes deceit, danger, excitement and most of all, friendship. Both of these novels show reality behind experiences through its actions, dialogs, and the characters themselves! In the following paragraphs, I will comp are and explain the reality behind appearances such as friends or family, disguises and secrets in both novels, Perfect and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Jim, a runaway slave from The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn shows many realities behind deceiving appearances. An example of a deceiving appearance is when Huck and the duke paint Jim all blue and dressed him up in King LearÃ¢â¬â¢s outfit before leaving to town. Huck doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to risk Jim being taken away and sold back into slavery so they disguise him as a Ã¢â¬Å"sick arab-but harmless when not out of his headÃ¢â¬ (Twain 157) so that he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have to uncomfortably lay tied up in the wigwam all day. The reality behind this disguise is that Jim is a kind and harmless runaway slave. After a tiring adventure, Jim talks to Huck about his family. When telling stories to Huck, he reveals a reality behind a deceiving appearance about his daughter Elizabeth. When JimÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter was young, she got very sick. When she was better, Jim had told her to shut the door but she just stood there smiling at him. He repeated himself and again, she just smiled at him. Thinking that she was being naughty and a rebel, he smacked her across the head as a punishment. When he slams the door shut and she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t budge, wince, or make any notice of it, Jim realizes Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, she was plumb deef en dumb, Huck, plumb deef en dumbÃ¢â¬ (Twain 156). The biggest and most important reality behind a deceiving appearance is that along this adventure, Jim wasÃ freed from slavery. After all the trouble Tom put him through, Tom finally fesses that Jim was free because Ã¢â¬Å"Old Miss Watson died two months ago, and she was so ashamed she ever was going to sell him down the river, and said so; and she set him free in her willÃ¢â¬ (Twain 289). The duke and the king from The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn are very mischievous people. They are full with illusions, lies, and intelligence. The first reality behind appearance Huck saw is their names. On the day they first meet, both men claim they were a king and a duke in order to receive pity and to be spoiled by Jim and Huck. While Huck sees through this appearance, Jim does not. Later on in the story, the king cons the people of a religious camp in order to get some money. He pretends to be a pirate who changed his ways after he was robbed and now is working his way back to the ocean in order to change all pirates. He gives credit to the people of the town to earn their pity and succeeds. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËDonÃ¢â¬â¢t you thank me, donÃ¢â¬â¢t you give me no credit; it all belongs to them dear people in Pokeville camp-meeting, natural brothers and benefactors of the race, and that dear preacher there, the truest friend a pirate ever hadÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Twain 132). The reality behind the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance is that it was all an act and that he is just a cheater. Even after this silly event, the king and the duke are still greedy for more. When they find out that a man who has a lot of money for a relative has died, they head towards the town. There, they pretended to be the uncle of three girls who are very sweet and innocent. Eventually, the actual heirs to the money show up and start to expose the duke and the king. They have a more authentic english accent and state that the handwritings when compared to an old letter arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the same. In my novel, Perfect by Ellen Hopkins, there are four main characters struggling to fit an ideal of perfection. One of the main characters is named Kendra. Kendra is a senior in high school and everything you would want to be. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s popular, on the cheer team, rich, and most of all, skinny. KendraÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with perfection comes with dangerous consequences as she is willing to do anything to achieve it. The most deceiving illusion when it comes to Kendra is her appearance itself. Kendra has gone through many plastic surgeries to look as she is now. With a rhinoplasty alreadyÃ scheduled, she is also hoping to get a boob job which her stepfather refuses to allow. Along with the plastic surgery, in order to lose weight, Kendra eats as little as possible. Kendra believes she is fat, being 5Ã¢â¬â¢ 10Ã¢â¬ and 122 pounds. Though everyone tells her sheÃ¢â¬â¢s not, she states that the Ã¢â¬Å"stinking mirror doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t lie. Everytime I walk by, it shouts out, Ã¢â¬ ËHey. Chub. When are you going to lose those fifteen pounds of ugly-ass flab? Do you want to stay size four forever?Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Hopkins, 23). The reality behind KendraÃ¢â¬â¢s illusion is that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s already beautiful and dangerously skinny. With every calorie she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t eat, she inches closer and closer to death. One of the reasons why she believes that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s not beautiful is because her boyfriend Conner left her. She believed he left her because she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t good and pretty enough. The thought of this tortures her because Conner was her first love, the first person whom she gave her heart and soul to. She later finds out that Conner is in the hospital because of an accident. The reality is that Conner didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get into an accident, he tried killing himself and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t leave her because he thought she was ugly. He left her because he had fallen in love with someone else. When Kendra leaves her beauty agent for Xavier, she begins to work with a man named Gilles. Xavier tells Kendra that Gilles is one of the Ã¢â¬Å"biggiesÃ¢â¬ and that she needs keep him happy. Ã¢â¬Å"I have to keep Gilles happy. He likes the way I look. Especially nakedÃ¢â¬ (Hopkins 496). Gilles and Xavier claim that they love her but in all honesty, they are taking advantage of her. If they rea lly did love her as she is, they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t abuse her body with pills, sex and surgeries. The appearance of Gilles loving her for her style and determination masks the reality that in order to do business, she must trade it with her service to him. Another character who has a deceiving appearance in the novel Perfect is a girl named Cara. Cara, like Kendra is also on the cheer team, beautiful, rich, has good grades and a wonderful sexy boyfriend but is she really all the things people make her out to be? Cara has a secret, one that could ruin her reputation; SheÃ¢â¬â¢s a lesbian. Her boyfriend Sean is just an appearance. An appearance to make her seem straight when in reality, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s a lesbian. When Sean finds out about her secret after they break up, he exposes her by taking a photo of Cara and her lover making love and sharing it to all of her Ã¢â¬Å"friendsÃ¢â¬ . After this incident, all of CaraÃ¢â¬â¢s friends leave her andÃ began calling her cruel names such as slut and dyke. Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢t believe Cara broke up with Sean. Neither can half the senior classÃ¢â¬ ¦ TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re chopping her into little pieces: Ã¢â¬ ¦is a slut anyway, Ã¢â¬ ¦always was full of it, Ã¢â¬ ¦serious commitment issuesÃ¢â¬ (Hopkins 306). The comfort and companionship of her friends was all an appearance in which the reality was just to use Cara for their own benefit. Because of this incident, Cara finally decides to tell her parents. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËDani said I should press chargesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ MomÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes grew steadily more severe. Ã¢â¬ËI think itÃ¢â¬â¢s best to let it drop. If this becomes public knowledge, the media will smear it all over the headlines. Our reputation will be ruined. Bad enough we had to deal with all the flak about Conner.Ã¢â¬â¢ She straightened her blouse, as if it had been wrinkled by the very idea of her children disgracing her nameÃ¢â¬ (Hopkins 535). The definition of parents is a mother and a father and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s exactly what CaraÃ¢â¬â¢s parents are. A mother and father, nothing more. Though they do provide Cara with materialistic needs, it is all for her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Her heartless parents with their high expectations are so extreme that it causes her twin brother Conner to kill himself. The idea of loving and supportive parents is just an appearance that the Sykes family create when the cold truth is that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t hold any familial bonds with each other. In the preceding paragraphs, I have compared and explained the realities behind appearances in both novels, Perfect and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. As Alfred Kazin was saying, realities behind deceiving appearances make a book more interesting to read. It also makes the readers realize that there are many illusions in our daily lives. Through the characters, we can perhaps learn a lesson on how to act, spot, and deal with these realities behind appearances.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Background: The Munich based Bayerische Motoren Werke AG(BMW)automobile company grew into one of the leading automobile producers in the world by the 1990s, and radically changed the way BMW was handling Ã¢â¬Å"innovation process managementÃ¢â¬ at its automobile division. Goals: To develop and demonstrate exceptional skills in constantly creating and capturing value, through its innovations and development of new products. Actions(Actual Ideas): The new innovation management system was developed and implemented in the 1990s.Let innovation be the driving force for its product development process throughout the late 1990s. BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s innovative strategy- Based on four main pillars In-house R&D and investments in long-term and risky projects[pic] [pic] Establishing an innovation culture and working environment Open innovation Appropriability Strategy Results(Benefits): (1)BMW was able to exploit various path breaking technological innovations, right from the idea generation stage t o the market introduction stage. (2)The company was able to develop continuous stream of new products and brands. 3)BMW successfully withstood competitive pressures and held on to its market position, and established itself as one of the leading players in the premium segment of the global automobile market. (4)BMW was awarded the Outstanding Corporate Innovator(OCI) title for 2002 by the Product Development & Management Association(PDMA). Innovative concepts and technologies Efficient Dynamics The long-term energy strategy of the BMW Group Ã¢â¬â innovations for lower consumption. It is the most effective concept worldwide for ensuring the long-term sustainability of individual mobility, and it is the framework for uaranteeing the ecological, economic and social viability of our future. | The Efficient Dynamics strategy is based on four main approaches or Ã¢â¬Å"pillarsÃ¢â¬ to promote sustainability. The first is focused on the | |optimisation of petrol and diesel engines to a chieve better fuel consumption, and this also includes steps to optimise lightweight | |construction, aerodynamics and energy management. The three other pillars are hybridisation and electrification of vehicle power trains and| |the long-term use of regenerative hydrogen as a source of fuel. Connected drive BMW ConnectedDrive offers customers options and solutions that can be ordered for all BMW models, from the 1 Series to the 7 Series, in selected markets around the world. Connectivity to web servers, Real-Time Traffic Information in combination with a networked navigation system, the integration of vehicle-specific apps with mobile end devices, the BMW Head-Up Display or the Emergency Call function Ã¢â¬â these and other features of BMW ConnectedDrive offer drivers everywhere a host of incomparable mobility services.